As a young child, Heyerdahl showed a strong interest in zoology, inspired by his mother who had a strong interest in Charles Darwin 's theory of evolution.
Bringing the Law Back In Legal Rights and the Regulation of Indian-White Relations on Rosebud Reservation1 by Thomas Biolsi This article argues that law is a fundamental constituting axis of modern social life-not just a political resource or an institution but a constituent of all social relations, particularly relations of domination.
Given this, anthropologists must bring law back into our analysis if we are to understand power and inequality and the politics surrounding them.
The particular case examined is the role of law-both "judge-made" case law and statutes en- acted by legislatures-in shaping the terrain of political struggle between Lakota and non-Indian people on Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota. It is argued that Native American legal rights based on unique jurisdictional doctrines in federal law push the Lakota struggle for empowerment in certain directions and locate struggle as against particular non-Indian opponents rather than against non-Indians in general.
Ultimately, anthropologists inter- ested in power must come to recognize that law has a subpoliti- cal role in constituting and regulating the politics of and struggle over empowerment. BoxPortland, Ore. Born inhe received his Ph. D, from Columbia Uni- versity in His research interests are political and legal an- thropology, ethnohistory, political economy, the history of In- dian-white relations, and race.
He has published Organizing the Lakota: University of Arizona press, and "The Birth of the Reservation: The present article was submitted 22 VIII 94 and accepted 20 x 94; the ha1 version reached the Editor's office 5 I The field and archival research on which this article is based, conducted between andwas supported by the American Council of Learned Societies, the American Philosophical Society, the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, the National Endow- ment for the Humanities, and Portland State University.
I am in- debted to many people in South Dakota who allowed me to inter- view them or otherwise assisted my research in concrete ways.
Space limitations prevent me from naming them here.
I do, how- ever, want to express my thanks to my sister Rose Cordier and her family and to the Antelope Community of Rosebud Reservation. I also want to thank my friend and colleague David Nugent for his critical insight and valuable feedback on this article. Ever since British structural-functionalism fell to the DOlitical critique, law, once a central concern of anthropol- ogy, has been demoted to one of several "specialties" within the discipline.
In the structural-functional para- digm law-understood as the configuration of social rights and obligations-was the central organizing axis of all societies. In Radcliffe-Brown'sformu- lation, for example, kinship systems in primitive societ- ies were logically deducible plans for the smooth alloca- tion and transfer of rights in rem and rights in personam.
Being a member of a lineage entailed a worldview for the social person, in front of whom stretched a world populated by others who stood in determinate jural rela- tionships.
Therein lay the "clockwork" of primitive so- cieties that supposedly held them together. In the ensu- ing political critique of structural-functionalism, one central criticism was precisely this "jural focus" of the paradigm Goddard What the critics had in mind by this phrase was the naive assumption of the struc- tural-functionalists that rules serve a self-correcting function in a social organism, settling disputes equitably and constraining the exercise of power within legitimate limits, and that they serve the interests of "everyone" within a seamless whole uncomplicated by fundamentally opposed parties or deep struggles over the social order.
What was missing from this formulation, argued the critics, was the recognition that rules often, if not usually, serve not the interests of "everyone" but the particular interests of the powerful and that rather than being a constraint on power rules are a reflection of and help enable and reproduce relations of inequality AsadGoddardWorsley It is appropriate, however, to ask if in rejecting the structural-functionalists' naive Whig view of law we have forgotten the critical role of law in the very constitution of society, that is, in instituting the historically particular grounding preconditions for social life.
It has increasingly become obvious to scholars in such fields as critical legal studies, feminist theory, marxistinfluenced history, legal sociology, law-and-society studies, and legal anthropology that law-the "voice" of the state-is not just a negative constraint on action, an instrument of domination manipulated by the ruling class, an empty ideological mystification, or an epiphe- -nomenal part of the "superstructure.
Put differently, law is productive or generative of subjectivity in the nation-state Lazarus-Black Understood in this way, law is a dimension at least of all modern social relations, since all social relations presume a ground of rights and legitimate claims.
It is not possible to think of subjectivity within modern society without seeing law-and the rights it allows or summons into existence-as one of the basic, constitutive axes of so- cia1 self and other,2 and it should not be possible to en- gage in political anthropology or write about any kind of power in complex societies without bringing in law, and thus the state, as a direct or indirect influence.
The hegemonic power of the state in the medium of the law has not, however, been sufficiently appreciated in an- thropology. How much of the "cultural system" of American common sense, for example, is set in place by the state's legal apparatus?
Consider law's role in struc- turing American common sense on the basis of property and other legally instituted rights Gordon A small business is staffed with people who carry around in their heads mixed clusters of this kind: Take the ownership claim: Law is a system of order, both in the sense of governing see Hunt and in the sense of the making of social meaning.
In recognizing law as a mode of constituting social relations, we would take notice of the role of the state in shaping civil society through legal hegemony; we would recognize that the legal operations of the state apparatus are a culture-making process and that state formation is a "cultural revolution" Corrigan and Sayer I 98 5.
This is not to say that the state's "citizens" merely accept the edicts of state-law or that the state apparatus directly dictates legal subjectivity by specifying precisely what entitlements will and will not be.] Kroeber.-A Mission Record of the California Indians. TheSpanishof someofthe missionarieswasnot always above reproach.
They used provincialisms and terms now obsolete. California Indians, Before, During, and After the Mission Era Introduction The California Missions Foundation is committed to the full and accurate depiction of history in early California.
CMF will continue to work with California Indian scholars, leaders, and cultural experts to develop this site into a robust source of information about California Indian experiences. Around Alfred L.
Kroeber and Constance G. Du Bois of the University of California, Berkeley first applied the term "Mission Indians" to Southern California Native Americans as an ethnographic and anthropological label to include those at Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa and south.
PUPPETS OF AN ILLEGITIMATE GOVERNMENT - Ugandan Indians in the eyes of the Baganda Tiina Juvonen University of Helsinki Faculty of Social Sciences . wrote a book entitled Indian Life: The Saga of a Dying People (Indianerliv: of some the Indians he met in California.
And the peace pipe that Cavling smoked was English-made. Still, in their “natural” state the Indians retained Indians raised their war cry at the northern entrance of the .
society to focus its advocacy on the whole mi gration policy field.
|Indians of the California Missions: Territories, Affiliations, Descendants | California Frontier||Introduction Seven years after the long-term vision established in the Joint Africa-EU Strategy JAESthe overall ambitious goal of implementing a partnership between equals and take the Africa-EU relationship to a new strategic political level remain largely unfulfilled. The need for a mindset and paradigm shift is, however, more relevant than ever, particularly taking into account considerable changes in both continents in the last few years, in terms of social, demographic, political and economic dynamics.|
|Ajit Vadakayil: THE FIRST SUPARI AND THE TURNING POINT OF INDIAN HISTORY -- CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL||The Dictator siege mortar used by the Union Army at Petersburg. Grant forced Lee into a long nine-month siege of Petersburg and the Union war effort stalled.|
|The JoinT africa-eu sTraTeGy, challenGes and prospecTs||A fitting suggestion for Vietnam Teachers Day could be to get a class or little group of students to compose a stylistic classical piece of music, in honour of their favourite teacher. This activity would also function as a group building workout, promoting a happier classroom atmosphere.|
|Anthropology - ardatayazilim.com||Meant primarily for students of her course, '17th Century Women Poets', this will also be of general interest to students of seventeenth-century literature and gender studies elsewhere. The resource includes links to articles and reviews, biographical information about a selection of seventeenth-century women writers, and selections of the work of poets including Aphra Behn, Katherine Fowler Philips, Lady Mary Wroth, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, Elizabeth Major and Anne Bradstreet.|
As a result only a few As a result only a few issues receive civil society’s advocacy attention.