View from Ekeberg toward Grefsenin Oslo. Persian is easy in terms of grammar, most Western European languages have the advantage of common vocabulary and recognition.
English[ edit ] This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message.
August Phillipson defines English linguistic imperialism as "the dominance of English His theory draws mainly on Johan Galtung 's imperialism theory, Antonio Gramsci 's social theory, and in particular on his notion of cultural hegemony.
A central theme of Phillipson's theory is the complex hegemonic processes[ clarification needed ] which, he asserts, continue to sustain the pre-eminence of English in the world today.
His book analyzes the British Council 's use of rhetoric to promote English, and discusses key tenets of English applied linguistics and English-language-teaching methodology. These tenets hold that: English is best taught monolingually "the monolingual fallacy" ; the ideal teacher is a native speaker "the native-speaker fallacy" ;[ clarification needed ] the earlier English is taught, the better the results "the early-start fallacy" ;[ clarification needed ] the more English is taught, the better the results "the maximum-exposure fallacy" ;[ clarification needed ] if other languages are used much, standards of English will drop "the subtractive fallacy".
According to Phillipson, those who promote English—organizations such as the British Council, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bankand individuals such as operators of English-language schools—use three types of argument: Intrinsic arguments describe the English language as providential, rich, noble and interesting.
Such arguments tend to assert what English is and what other languages are not. Extrinsic arguments point out that English is well-established: Functional arguments emphasize the usefulness of English as a gateway to the world.
Other arguments for English are its economic utility: Another theme in Phillipson's work is " linguicism "—the species of prejudice that leads to endangered languages becoming extinct or losing their local eminence due to the rise and competing prominence of English.
Other languages[ edit ] InBlack school children in Soweto protested at being taught in Afrikaanswhich had been pushed by the Apartheid authorities concerned at the growing refusal of the Black population to speak it.
They reasoned that by only having access to Afrikaner resources the South African government could control them more closely than having access to a global language i. The Uprising became a turning point in the overthrow of Apartheid years later.
At various times, especially in colonial settings or where a dominant culture has sought to unify a region under its control, a similar phenomenon has arisen. In the Roman EmpireLatin —originally the language of a limited region in central Italy—was imposed first on the rest of Italy and later on large parts of Europe, largely displacing previous languages spoken there, while in Roman Africa Latin was merely dominant until it and the native languages were displaced by Arabization.
Anatolia was similarly diverse linguistically when it was ruled by small native states. Under the Persian and Hellenistic empiresthe language of the conqueror served as the lingua franca.
The indigenous Anatolian languages disappeared. Arabization has eliminated many indigenous languages in North Africaand restricted Coptic to sacred use.
The English language during the Middle Ages was an object of linguistic imperialism by the French languageparticularly following the Norman conquest.
For hundreds of years, French or Anglo-Norman was the language of administration See Law French and therefore a language of superior status in England. Latin remained the language of the church and of learning. Although many words introduced by the Normans are today indistinguishable by most English-speakers from native Germanic words, later-learned loanwords derived from Latin or French often have a more cultured sound to a native English-speaker.
Following the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire over much of present-day Germany and Central Europethe German language and its dialects became the preferred language of many Central-European nobility.
With varying success, German spread across much of Central and Eastern Europe as a language of trade and status.
French too has expanded. This process, known as Francizationoften causes resistance amongst the subject peoples, leading to demands for independence. Examples of this can still be found in Brittany and Flanders Belgium. Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese colonization, made these languages prevalent in South America and in parts of AfricaAsia the PhilippinesMacau and in former times in Formosa.
Russian linguistic imperialism can be detected in Belarus both in the former dispute over the name of the country Belarus vs Belorussia and in the common spelling of the name of their president. English transcription has overtaken the Russian form Alexander Lukashenko instead of Belarusian form Alyaksandr Lukashenka.
Critique[ edit ] Many scholars have participated in lively discussions of Phillipson's claims. Alan Davies, for instance, envisions the spectre of Phillipson haunting the Department of Applied Linguistics in Edinburgh: Rajagopalan goes a step farther and maintains that Phillipson's book has led to a guilt complex among English language learning and teaching ELT professionals.
RP's unfalsifiable answer must be that they don't, they can't, they've been persuaded against their better interests.But in Pakistan the government has never thought on this line and the existing situation has gone from bad to worse where English language teaching is considered as being dissatisfactory, non-conducive and counter-productive for learning the language in Pakistan (Warsi ).
The principle purpose of the introduction is to present your position (this is also known as the "thesis" or "argument") on the issue at hand but effective introductory paragraphs are so much more than that.
Open Document. Below is an essay on "English Language in Pakistan" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
investigating English language instruction in the context of Chitral, Nawab () concluded that the teaching of English was not much different from other subjects like Social Studies or History.
IMPROVING ENGLISH ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS OF PAKISTANI PUBLIC SCHOOL'S STUDENTS main obstacle in the way to teaching English in Pakistan. They have lack of awareness of new International Journal of English Language Teaching Vol.1, No 2, pp. , December This thesis describes a collaborative Action Research project that works to improve the quality of English language teaching (ELT) and learning in a public sector university in Pakistan.
It demonstrates how teachers and students can take responsibility for engaging in active learning and teaching by.